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IJGMSP (v2:n2)

Volume 2, Number 2


CONTENTS

The Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on Nonprofit Governance Practices. Patricia Luoma
A Queuing Theory Based Model to Estimate the Variability of Waiting Time in Supply Chain Operations. Xiaofeng Zhao
Some Common Practices In Relation To Breaches In Information Technology Security: Does Stiffening Access Reduce Risk? Emmanuel U. Opara, Reginald L. Bell and Maria Milton R. Bryant
E-Learning is a subset of E-Commerce. Parwaiz Karamat and Harsha Wijesinghe



ABSTRACTS

The Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on Nonprofit Governance Practices
Patrice Luoma, Ph.D.

Quinnipiac University
Hamden, CT
Patrice.Luoma@quinnipiac.edu

Abstract

Corporate governance has come under intense scrutiny in the early years of the twenty-first century due to scandals, such as those which took place at Enron and WorldCom. The boards of these companies were criticized for failing in their fiduciary duty, thus allowing managers of these companies to engage in unethical and illegal activities. While the significant media hype has centered on just a few corporations, it must be noted that this ethical and legal misconduct goes far beyond and has not been limited to the for-profit sector. Incidents at the US Olympic Committee, the New York Stock Exchange, and the United Way (Jacobs, 2004) have heightened concern for governance in the nonprofit sector as well.

There is a developing body of knowledge comprised of best practices for governance in nonprofit organizations. While these best practices are not a guarantee of board or organizational effectiveness, they are generally accepted as principles of good governance and may serve to benefit all organizations. According to Herman & Renz (2004) “best practices can be regarded as legitimating techniques and, therefore, as a moving target. Given the great difficulty of assessing nonprofit organizational effectiveness, funders and others feel the need for some indicators of effective management…Nonprofit organizations that keep up with this set are likely to be regarded as effective, thereby increasing their legitimacy and their chances of securing funding.." (703).

This study surveyed nonprofit executives to determine their awareness and adoption of for-profit governance regulation and practices in the nonprofit sector. Specifically, the study sought to determine the executive's awareness of Sarbanes-Oxley and whether they had made any changes in their boards or organizations due to their awareness of Sarbanes-Oxley. In addition, the study sought to determine how such awareness and adoption of governance practices might develop in the nonprofit organization.

Keywords:governance, nonprofit organizations, boards of directors, Sarbanes-Oxley, institutional theory



A Queuing Theory Based Model to Estimate the Variability of Waiting Time in Supply Chain Operations
Xiaofeng Zhao, Ph. D.

College of Business University of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA 22401
xzhao@umw.edu

Abstract

This paper explores the variability and measurement of waiting time in supply chain operations. In supply chain systems, many important quantities are variable. Because of the prevalence of variability and its disruptive influence on system performance, understanding it is critical to effective supply chain management. We provide a mathematically tractable exact expression for variance (as measured by coefficient of variation) of waiting time for M /M /1 queues. We apply this expression to give a two-moment approximation to the standard deviation of waiting time in GI /G/1queue. The measurement requires only the mean and standard deviation or the coefficient of variation of the inter-arrival and service time distributions. It is simple enough to be implemented in manual or spreadsheet calculations, but in comparisons to Monte Carlo simulations has proven to give good approximations (within 10%), under the assumption that the coefficients of variation for the inter-arrival and service times are between 0 and 1.25.

Keywords: Queuing Theory, M /M /1, GI /G/1, Variance of Waiting Time, Approximation, Supply Chain Operations



Some Common Practices In Relation To Breaches In Information Technology Security: Does Stiffening Access Reduce Risk?
Emmanuel U. Opara, Ph. D.

Department of Accounting, Finance and MIS
College of Business
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas 77446
euopara@pvamu.edu

Reginald L. Bell, Ph. D.

Department of Accounting, Finance and MIS
College of Business
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas 77446
rlbell@pvamu.edu

Milton R. Bryant, Ph. D.

Department of Management and Marketing
College of Business
Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View, Texas 77446
mrbryant@pvamu.edu

Abstract

Enterprise systems of all categories are utilizing the internet in an ever-increasing manner to boost business efficiency, enhance communications with clients and partners and, to connect remote offices with workers in a synergistic approach. However, granting access comes with risks. These risks are related to the cyber crimes that have left businesses scrambling for solutions. Enterprise systems are constantly under attack from both inside and outside their respective network parameters. In this article, we used chi-square to test the observed frequencies of stiffening of access, including assigning simple passwords and user IDs and requiring frequent changes in passwords, in order to determine if they are significantly correlated with the reported occurrences of breaches in IT security. We found, astonishingly, no difference in the reported cases of breaches, regardless of the observed IT security protocol. These findings have some serious implications for both IT managers and security experts consulting to business and industry.


E-Learning is a subset of E-Commerce
Parwaiz Karamat

Open Polytechnic of New Zealand,
Wellington, New Zealand
Parwaiz.karamat@openpolytechnic.ac.net

Harsha Wijesinghe

University of Otago
Dunedin, New Zealand
Harsha.wijesinghe@gmail.com

Abstract

E-learning has emerged as an effective and efficient business industry with significant gains through collaboration of skills and knowledge between stakeholders. If e-learning is not adopted as a business, then there is no difference between e-learning and the previously used ICT enable learning solutions. The particular focus of this study was to examine if e-learning is a real subset of e-commerce. For this purpose, a review of the literature was made which demonstrated that among the e-commerce businesses; e-learning nowadays is one of the most profitable e-businesses.

Keywords:E-Learning, Distance learning, E-Commerce, E-Business, online learning, flexible learning, Academic, Corporate, Education