Name Email-Id Text

IJGMS (v3:n2)

Volume 3, Number 2


It's a Jungle Out There. On Managerial Cognition, Change, and Learning During Internationalization. Gerhard Apfelthaler, Jorg Hruby, and Mary Jo Shane.
Global Market Integration: An Intersectional Model for A Multi-Identity System. Beryl Y. Chang.
Financial Growth and Analysis of Modaraba Sector since 2001-2009 (In Pakistan). Yasir Hassan and Saleha Yasir.


It's a Jungle Out There.
On Managerial Cognition, Change, and Learning
During Internationalization

Gerhard Apfelthaler
Mary Jo Shane

California Lutheran University
School of Business
60 West Olsen #3500
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360

Jorg Hruby

Global Mindset Deutschland
Worringerstrasse 49
40211 Dusseldorf


International expansion is one of the most challenging organizational events, requiring employees to change, learn and adapt. While these concepts have been applied in a variety of diverse contexts, change and learning during the internationalization process for small- and medium-sized enterprises has largely been ignored. Our study focuses on the cognitive changes that managers of small and medium-sized European companies experienced when shifting their focus to international environments. Employing a grounded theory approach, our results indicate that internationalization triggers changes in managerial cognition in four major areas - perceptions of trust, intuition, cultural awareness, and approaches to doing business abroad.

Keywords: Internationalization, global mindset, managerial cognition, international strategic decision-making, grounded theory, individual learning.

Global Market Integration:
An Intersectional Model for A Multi-Identity System
Beryl Y. Chang, PhD, MBA

Department of Economics
New York University
140 West 69th Street, Suite 61B
New York, NY 10023
Tel: 212.799.1799


Given the complexity in the process of global market integration due to intrinsic differences such as social and political causes among nations, this paper develops a hybrid model utilizing the concept of intersectionality in seeking continued global market enhancements in a multi-identity system. It posits that while intersections in socio-cultural and geo-political regions are essential in facilitating economic exchanges among nations, multi-level intersections beyond these dimensions exist to achieve similar objectives. Subsequently, country-specific identities and core-values, internal balancing factors of individual nation, and conditions in maintaining external equilibrium at the international level are central for sustainable global market integrations.

Keywords: intersectionality, global integration, national identity, equilibrium.

Financial Growth and Analysis of Modaraba Sector Since 2001-2009 (In Pakistan)
Yasir Hassan
Lecturer: Lahore Business School, the University of Lahore, Pakistan
Saleha Yasir
Lecturer: Department of Pharmacy, the University of Lahore, Pakistan


The main objective of conducting this study is to present the real sense of improvement from Islamic point of view and financial growth of Mudaraba sector (In case of Pakistan) over 2001-2009. Islam appears to be the only vibrant religion and it tells us about anticipation of interest. But at the same time it gives a complete begin of doing business and financing modes. Several scholars of WEST believe that the use of Islamic banking is more appropriate for economic expansion. While this study finds out the effect of total sales by the change in Paid-up-capital, numbers of Shares and Equity of modarba sector. Same analysis is done with backward method, Profit after Tax is best described by Equity, Sales, (Bank) / Financial Charges and Profit before tax. With the help of graph as well as multiple regressions, it is much easier to take better decision that sales and profit is increasing or decreasing since 2001 to 2009.

Keywords:Islamic banking, Mudarba, lump sum amount, least significance test.